Questions for the Submodule 5

  1. Describe the life cycle products of honey bees. Characterize the chemical composition of honey, propolis (bee glue), beeswax, royal jelly, bee pollen, apitoxin and teir uses in medicine and pharmacy.
  2. Leeches: Latin name, area of distribution, constituents and uses in medicine.
  3. Characterize the components of snake venom, its uses in medicine and describe the method of its obtaining. What are the snakebite first aid methods?
  4. Which types of animal fat can be used in pharmacy? Describe the methods of obtaining of lanolin, suet and lard.
  5. Cod-liver oil: Latin name of the product and the fish-source of it, its chemical constituents and health benefits.
  6. What are waxes? Describe the waxes of animal and plant origin, their constituents and uses in medicine.
  7. Lanolin: methods of obtaining, constituents and uses as a pharmaceutical aid. Characterize the main types of lanolin.
  8. Lectins: definition of the term, their role and toxicity. Give examples of lectins and in which way it is possible to inactivate them.
  9. Enzymes: definition of the term, classification with short description of each class. Describe the activity of enzymes found in plants (e.g. papain, bromelain, enzymes of black cumin).
  10. What is allantoin and how is it used in medicine and cosmetics?
  11. Sampling: definitions of the terms “batch”, “pooled sample”, “average sample”, “final sample”. What is final sample is used for? Give examples of possible foreign matter in the batch of plant material.
  12. Give the definition of the term “alkaloid”. How are the alkaloids’ names formed?
  13. Classification of alkaloids. What does this classification depend on?
  14. Give the classification of typical alkaloids with examples of structures.
  15. Functions of alkaloids in plants and their distribution in the Plant kingdom and plant tissues.
  16. Physical and chemical properties of alkaloids.
  17. Describe the method of alkalods’ extraction in the form of salts/bases.
  18. Describe the identification of alkaloids (group of reactions and reagents used).
  19. Which methods are used for quantitative determination of alkaloids?
  20. Describe the possible types of pharmacological activity of alkaloids with examples of plants.
  21. Describe the structure activity correlation of purine/ isoquinoline/ tropane (tropine and ecgonine groups) alkaloids.
  22. Opium: description of the product, method of obtaining and chemical composition with examples of structures.
  23. Structures to know: capsaicin, ephedrine, colchicine, caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, atropine, scopolamine, cocaine, platyphylline, thermopsine, cytisine, morphine, codeine, heroine, papaverine,glaucine, chelidonine, berberine, protopine, vincamine, vinblastine, vincristine, strychnine, harmine, aconitine, jervine.

Microscopical description of  plants:

1. Belladonna leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – glandular hairs with small pedicel and a large multicellular head; 5 – glandular hairs with long pedicel and unicellular head;  6 – simple hairs; 7 – oval idioblasts filled with calcium oxalate sand.

2. Stramonium leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 – glandular hairs with small pedicel and a large multicellular head; 6 – druses of calcium oxalate.

3. Henbane leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 – glandular hairs; 6 – prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

4. Bush pea leaf: 1 – Lower epidermal cells; 2 – upper epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 – rosette at the base of a hair; 6 – spheric crystals of phenolic glycoside

5. Celandine herb:  1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata;  4 – simple hair; 5 – spongeous parenchymal cells with large intercellular ducts (aerenchyma); 6 – veins with lactifers filled with yellow contents.

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