- Describe the life cycle products of honey bees. Characterize the chemical composition of honey, propolis (bee glue), beeswax, royal jelly, bee pollen, apitoxin and teir uses in medicine and pharmacy.
- Leeches: Latin name, area of distribution, constituents and uses in medicine.
- Characterize the components of snake venom, its uses in medicine and describe the method of its obtaining. What are the snakebite first aid methods?
- Which types of animal fat can be used in pharmacy? Describe the methods of obtaining of lanolin, suet and lard.
- Cod-liver oil: Latin name of the product and the fish-source of it, its chemical constituents and health benefits.
- What are waxes? Describe the waxes of animal and plant origin, their constituents and uses in medicine.
- Lanolin: methods of obtaining, constituents and uses as a pharmaceutical aid. Characterize the main types of lanolin.
- Lectins: definition of the term, their role and toxicity. Give examples of lectins and in which way it is possible to inactivate them.
- Enzymes: definition of the term, classification with short description of each class. Describe the activity of enzymes found in plants (e.g. papain, bromelain, enzymes of black cumin).
- What is allantoin and how is it used in medicine and cosmetics?
- Sampling: definitions of the terms “batch”, “pooled sample”, “average sample”, “final sample”. What is final sample is used for? Give examples of possible foreign matter in the batch of plant material.
- Give the definition of the term “alkaloid”. How are the alkaloids’ names formed?
- Classification of alkaloids. What does this classification depend on?
- Give the classification of typical alkaloids with examples of structures.
- Functions of alkaloids in plants and their distribution in the Plant kingdom and plant tissues.
- Physical and chemical properties of alkaloids.
- Describe the method of alkalods’ extraction in the form of salts/bases.
- Describe the identification of alkaloids (group of reactions and reagents used).
- Which methods are used for quantitative determination of alkaloids?
- Describe the possible types of pharmacological activity of alkaloids with examples of plants.
- Describe the structure activity correlation of purine/ isoquinoline/ tropane (tropine and ecgonine groups) alkaloids.
- Opium: description of the product, method of obtaining and chemical composition with examples of structures.
- Structures to know: capsaicin, ephedrine, colchicine, caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, atropine, scopolamine, cocaine, platyphylline, thermopsine, cytisine, morphine, codeine, heroine, papaverine,glaucine, chelidonine, berberine, protopine, vincamine, vinblastine, vincristine, strychnine, harmine, aconitine, jervine.
Microscopical description of plants:
1. Belladonna leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – glandular hairs with small pedicel and a large multicellular head; 5 – glandular hairs with long pedicel and unicellular head; 6 – simple hairs; 7 – oval idioblasts filled with calcium oxalate sand.
2. Stramonium leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 - glandular hairs with small pedicel and a large multicellular head; 6 – druses of calcium oxalate.
3. Henbane leaf: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 – glandular hairs; 6 – prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
4. Bush pea leaf: 1 – Lower epidermal cells; 2 – upper epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hairs; 5 – rosette at the base of a hair; 6 – spheric crystals of phenolic glycoside
5. Celandine herb: 1-Upper epidermal cells; 2 – lower epidermal cells; 3 – stomata; 4 – simple hair; 5 - spongeous parenchymal cells with large intercellular ducts (aerenchyma); 6 – veins with lactifers filled with yellow contents.